identification of fibre - Textile | chemwifi

 Fiber Analysis: Qualitative

identification of textile fibre- microscope




1. Grouped By Generic Classifications of Textile Fibres

Group 1 - Natural Fibers

   Natural Fibers

a. Cellulose (Vegetable)

b. Keratin (Animal)

(Natural Protein Fibres)

c. Mineral

 1. Seed Fibres

Cotton

Akund

Kapok

 

 1. Wool & Chlorinated wool

 

·        Asbestos

 

 

 2. Silk

Bombyx (cultivated)

Tasar or Tussah (wild)

 

 

2. Bast Fibres

 I. Low Lignin Content

Linen or Flax

Ramie

II. High Lignin Content

Jute

Mesta

Rosella

True Hemp

Sunn Hemp

 

3.

 Alpaca

Camel

Cashmere

Horse

llama

Mohair

Rabbit

Vicuna

Yak

 

3. Leaf Fibres

Manila Hemp (Abaca)

Sisal (Agave)

 

4. Fruit or Nut Fibre

Coir

 


Group 2 - Man-Made Fibers

   Man Made Fibers

a. Regenerated Fibres

b. Synthetic Fibres

 1. Cellulosic

Viscose

Cuprammonium

Acetate (secondary & triacetate)

Polynosic

High-Wet Modulus Fibres (HWM)

 

 

 

 1. Polyamides

Nylon 6

Nylon 66

Nylon 610

Etc…

 

 

 

 2. Polyester

Terylene

Terene

Dacron

Etc…

 

 

 

2. Protein

Casein

Groundnut Fibre

Zein

 

 

 

 

 3. Polyvinyl Derivatives

 I. Polyvinyl Chloride

Pe Ce

Rhovyl

Etc…

 II. Polyvinyl Chloride Acetate

Vinylon ST

Vinyon HH

 III. Polyvinyl Chloride Acrylonitrile

Vinyon N

Dynel

 IV. Polyvinylonitrile (Acrylic fibre)

Orlon

Acrilan

 V. Polyvinyl Alcohol

Vinylon

Kuralon

 VI. Polystyrene & Copolymers

Styroflex

Polyfil

Etc..

 VII. Polyvinylidene Chloride & Copolymers

 Saran

Velon

 

 

 

 

 4. Polyolefins

 I. Polyethylene

Polythene

 II. Polypropylene

Reevon

 



Group 3 Inorganic Fibers

Inorganic Fibres
a. Glass
b. Metal




2. Fibre identification by Burning Test-

A small tuft of fibres is held by forceps in the frame of a micro-burner for about
10 seconds and is then removed. It is noted whether the tuft burns or not; whether it forms any bead or whether the ash skeleton is retained; the type of smell emitted during burning is also noted. The test is carried out in daylight. 

Fibre-identification-by-Burning-Test


Reaction to Flame

Reaction-to-flame-natural-fibres
Reaction-to-flame-man-made-fibres
Reaction-to-flame-inorganic-fibres


3. Fibre identification by Density

Identification Density & Melting Point

Natural Fibre

Density g/cc

Melting Point ℃

Asbestos (chrysotile)

2.1-2.8

Over 350

Cellulose

1.51

none

Silk

1.32-1.34

none

Wool & Other Hair

1.15-1.30

none


Identification Density & Melting Point

Man-Made Fibre

Density g/cc

Melting Point ℃

Acetate, Secondary

1.32

260

Acetate, tri

1.30

288

Acrylic

1.12-1.19

none

Anidex

1.22

Softens at 190℃

Aramid

1.38

Char at 400℃

Azlon

1.30

none

Modacrylic

1.30 or 1.36

188 or 120

Novoloid

1.25

none

Nylon

1.12-1.15

213-225

Nylon 6,6

1.12-1.15

256-265

Nytril

1.20

218

Polyester

1.38 or 1.23

250-260 or 282

Polyethylene

0.90-0.92

135

polypropylene

0.90-0.92

170

Rayon

1.51

none

Rubber

0.96-1.06

none

Saran

1.70

168

Spandex

1.20-1.21

230

Vinal

1.26-1.30

-

Vinyon

1.34-1.37

230 or 400


Identification Density & Melting Point

Inorganic Fibre

Density g/cc

Melting Point ℃

Metallic

Varies

Over 300

Glass

2.4-2.6

850




4. Fibre identification by Solubility Test

fibre-identification-by-solubility-test


Floatation Test -

A small sample of the fibre after degreasing in benzene-methanol mixture ( 3:2 ) is placed in the test liquid and pushed below the surface by means of a glass rod. The liquid should be illuminated transversely and viewed against a black background to observe whether the sample floats on the surface or sinks.


5. Fibre identification by Microscope

Microscopic Analysis

Longitudinal Examination - Place a small number of fibres on a glass slide in a suitable
mounting medium, cover the fibres with a covering glass. Examine the fibres at a specified magnification under microscope.

Cross-Section Examination - Take a tuft of fibres and prepare the specimen with the
cross-sectioning device, place it on a glass slide in a suitable mounting medium and cover it with a covering glass. Examine the fibres at a specified magnification under microscope.


Photomicrographs of Common Textile Fibers

Cross-Section 500X - Cotton
Cross-Section 500X - Cotton fibre (not mercerized)
Longitudinal View-500X - Cotton fibre (mercerized)
Longitudinal View-500X - Cotton fibre (not mercerized)
Cross-Section 500X - Cotton
Cross-Section 500X - Cotton fibre (mercerized)
Longitudinal View-500X - Cotton fibre (mercerized)
Longitudinal View-500X - Cotton fibre (mercerized)
Cross-Section-500X-Flax-fibre
Cross-Section-500X Flax fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-flax-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Flax fibre
Cross-Section-500X hemp fibre
Cross-Section-500X- Hemp fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Hemp fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Hemp fibre
Cross-Section-500X-jute-fibre
Cross-Section-500X- Jute fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-jute-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-jute-fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Ramie-fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Ramie fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Ramie-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Ramie fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Sisal-fibre
Cross-Section-500X- Sisal fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Sisal-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Sisal fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Abaca-fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Abaca fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Abaca-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Abaca fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Kenaf-fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Kenaf-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Kenaf-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Kenaf-fibre
Cross-Section-500X-wool-fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Wool-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Wool-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Wool fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Mohair-fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Mohair fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Mohair-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Mohair-fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Phormium-fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Phormium-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-phormium-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X- Phormium fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Cashmere-fibre
Cross-Section-500X- Cashmere fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Cashmere-fibre
Longitudinal-View-240X- Cashmere fibre
SEM (Cashmere).
Longitudinal-View-1500X- Cashmere fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Camel hair
Cross-Section-500X-Camel hair
Longitudinal-View-500X-Camel-hair-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-Camel-hair-fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Silk-fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Silk-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-silk-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-silk-fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Silk-tussah-fibre
Cross-Section-500X-Silk-tussah-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-silk-tussah-fibre
Longitudinal-View-500X-silk-tussah-fibre
Cross-Section-500X-polyester-fibre
Cross-Section-500X- Polyester fibre
Longitudinal-View-250X-polyester-fibre
Longitudinal-View-250X-Polyester-fibre






REFFERENCE SPECIFICATION     :    IS 667: 1981 & AATCC 20- 2007


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